Shape analysis (Koeppe et al., 1999) was first introduced to analyse AChE radiopharmaceutical, [11C]MP4P, also called [11C]PMP. The shape analysis method was also used to analyse [11C]MP4A studies, and found to be sensitive technique to detect cortical AChE changes in patients with dementia (Tanaka et al., 2001) but less sensitive in detecting changes in Alzheimer's disease than the reference region input method (Nagatsuka et al., 2001).
The assumption that all radiopharmaceutical is metabolized and trapped in the end of the PET scanning would require relatively long scan times, especially in enzyme inhibition studies. Radiopharmaceuticals with low elimination rate can be analysed using modified shape analysis (Ohya et al., 2013).
Koeppe RA, Frey KA, Snyder SE, Meyer P, Kilbourn MR, Kuhl DE. Kinetic modeling of N-[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate: alternatives for analysis of an irreversible positron emission tomography tracer for measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in human brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999; 19: 1150-1163. doi: 10.1097/00004647-199910000-00012.
Nagatsuka S, Fukushi K, Shinotoh H, Namba H, Iyo M, Tanaka N, Aotsuka A, Ota T, Tanada S, Irie T. Kinetic analysis of [11C]MP4A using a high-radioactivity brain region that represents an integrated input function for measurement of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity without arterial blood sampling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001; 21:1354-1366. doi: 10.1097/00004647-200111000-00011.
Ohya T, Kikuchi T, Fukumura T, Zhang M-R, Irie T. Non-input analysis for incomplete trapping irreversible tracer with PET. Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 40: 664-669. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2013.02.012.
Sato K, Fukushi K, Shinotoh H, Nagatsuka S, Tanaka N, Aotsuka A, Ota T, Shiraishi T, Tanada S, Iyo M, Irie T. Evaluation of simplified kinetic analyses for measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase activity using N-[11C]Methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004; 24(6): 600-611. doi: 10.1097/01.WCB.0000117689.98763.6A.
Tanaka N, Fukushi K, Shinotoh H, Nagatsuka S, Namba H, Iyo M, Aotsuka A, Ota T, Tanada S, Irie T. Positron emission tomographic measurement of brain acetylcholinesterase activity using N-[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate without arterial blood sampling: methodology of shape analysis and its diagnostic power for Alzheimer's disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001; 21:295-306. doi: 10.1097/00004647-200103000-00013.
Updated at: 2014-05-29
Created at: 2023-01-20
Written by: Vesa Oikonen