Introduction to modelling


Model is an explicit realization of one hypothesis about how nature works.

Model permits quantitative predictions of how the system will respond to a particular experimental protocol (simulation). If this particular hypothesis is true, the system actually responds in experiments as predicted by the model.

Role of modelling and simulation in scientific method (Phair, 1997):

Role of modelling in scientific method

In PET the mathematical models describe the dynamic behaviour of the tracer in terms of mathematical representations.

Steps in PET modelling

Steps of modelling Huang & Phelps, 1986.

See also:


Carson RE (2005): Tracer Kinetic Modeling in PET. In: Positron Emission Tomography. (Eds: Bailey DL, Townsend DW, Valk PE, Maisey MN) Springer, London, 127-159.

Cobelli C, Carson E. Introduction to Modeling in Physiology and Medicine. Academic Press, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-12-160240-6.

Huang SC., Carson R.E., Phelps M.E. (1983): Tracer Kinetic Modeling in Positron Computed Tomography. In: Lambrecht R.M., Rescigno A. (eds.) Tracer Kinetics and Physiologic Modeling. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol 48. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-50036-7_6.

Huang SC, Phelps ME (1986): Principles of tracer kinetic modeling in positron emission tomography and autoradiography. In: Positron Emission Tomography and Autoradiography: Principles and Applications for the Brain and Heart. (Eds: Phelps,M; Mazziotta,J; Schelbert,H) Raven Press, New York, 287-346.

Garfinkel A, Shevtsov J, Guo Y: Modeling Life: The Mathematics of Biological Systems. Springer, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-59731-7.

Garfinkel D. Computer modeling, complex biological systems, and their simplifications. Am J Physiol. 1980; 239: R1-R6. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.1980.239.1.R1.

Gunawardena J. Models in biology: 'accurate descriptions of our pathetic thinking'. BMC Biology 2014; 12:29.

Phair RD. Development of kinetic models in the nonlinear world of molecular cell biology. Metabolism 1997; 46:1489-1495. doi: 10.1016/S0026-0495(97)90154-2.

Hsieh C-H (ed.): Positron Emission Tomography - Current Clinical and Research Aspects. IntechOpen, 2012, doi: 10.5772/1280 (open access).

Fathinul Fikri Ahmad Saad (2013): Molecular Imaging. In: Selected Topics on Computed Tomography, Prof. Dongqing Wang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-1102-3, InTech, doi: 10.5772/55907 (open access).

Schmidt KC, Turkheimer FE. Kinetic modeling in positron emission tomography. Q J Nucl Med. 2002; 46: 70-85. PMID: 12072847.


Updated at: 2018-12-08
Created at: 2011-11-22
Written by: Vesa Oikonen