Membrane transporters in PET imaging

Cellular membranes form a barrier to most of organic and inorganic solutes. Specific transporter proteins enable strictly regulated transport of solutes across the membranes, down or against their concentration gradient. Transport against the concentration gradient (“active” transport) requires energy, which is obtained by exploiting ion gradients or from subsequent ATP turnover. For reviews on transporters, see the references. In the absence of transporter, membrane permeability is correlated with the solutes oil/water partition coefficient. Lipid bilayer membranes are heterogeneous, with higher lipophilicity in the centre of the bilayer, which is taken into account in inhomogeneous solubility-diffusion model.

PET tracers are being used and actively developed for studying the function and localization of transporters. Transporters are not only important as targets of functional PET imaging, but transporters indirectly affect the usability of PET tracers for studying other functions, since transporters are needed for the tracer to reach their targets across epithelial barriers (such as BBB) and in intracellular organelles. Transporters are also involved in the excretion of PET tracers from the body, and the distribution of their radioactive metabolites.


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References:

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Shinoda W. Permeability across lipid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2016; 1858: 2254-2265. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2016.03.032.

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Steffansen B, Brodin B, Nielsen CU (eds.): Molecular Biopharmaceutics. Pharmaceutical Press, 2010, ISBN: 978-0-85369-722-0.

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You G, Morris ME (eds.): Drug Transporters - Molecular Characterization and Role in Drug Disposition, 2nd ed. Wiley, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-118-48993-2.



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Created at: 2015-08-17
Updated at: 2018-04-10
Written by: Vesa Oikonen