Automatic blood sampling system (ABSS)

Arterial whole blood radioactivity concentration can be continuously collected and measured with ABSS ("blood pump" with on-line detector).

Certain automatic blood sampling systems are MR-compatible (Breuer et al., 2010), and can be used with PET-MR systems. ABSS pumps may also cause electromagnetic noise that affects MR studies (Bartlett et al., 2017). Incompatible ABSS has to be placed far from the PET-MR, requiring long tubing, and that increases the dispersion error.

On-line samplers in TPC

Currently, there are three systems for human studies installed in the Turku PET Centre, one made by GEMS and two made by Allogg. The use of our first ABSS, made by Scanditronics, was discontinued in 2018. Each on-line sampler is normally used only with a certain PET scanner, but they can be swapped if necessary. Swisstrace blood sampler with Ismatec peristaltic pump is installed in small-animal imaging unit, but it could be used in human studies as well.

Raw ABSS data can be found in PETPACS with the PET images.

Raw ABSS data must be preprocessed before the data can be used in the analysis. Each ABSS system has its own calibration coefficients and file format, but these are normally automatically taken into account by program blo2kbq (or absscal), which is part of the ABSS preprocessing. After the necessary processing and correction steps, the data format is the same as in any other TAC files in TPC.


Raw on-line detector data of this Allogg ABSS (Allogg AB, Mariefred, Sweden) is stored in a specific format; note that the format is not the same as the format of the second Allogg ABSS.

Data that was collected before PETPACS was available can be found in S:\Lab\plasma\archive\hrplus_kevat2004_2005\ or S:\Lab\plasma\HRplus\.


Our second Allogg ABSS is used with HRRT scanner. It also has its own file format.

Before the second Allogg ABSS was installed, other ABSS systems have been used with HRRT.

ABSS at GE Advance (put out of operation in the end of 2010)

On-line detector that was normally located at GE Advance PET scanner, is manufactured by GEMS. Raw on-line detector data is stored in a specific format.

Studies conducted before 2000-02-03

Blood data files from GE Advance studies which date back to 2000-02-02 and before that, do not contain the date of the study. The date has to be added manually to the data file in international format; without it, wrong calibration coefficients will be applied (the first measured calibration coefficients).

For example, if the study date was Sep 24 1999, add the following line to the beginning of the data file:

# 1999-09-24


CTI/ECAT931 scanner was put out of operation in the end of April 2005. Scanditronics on-line detector was located at ECAT931 during the years it was in operation. On-line detector is working fine, and can be used in connection with some other scanner, when necessary.

Raw on-line detector data is stored in a specific format.

The raw blood data from ECAT931 studies were written in directory S:\Lab\plasma\ecat\.

Swisstrace ABSS in BioCity

Swisstrace ABSS is connected to computer with PMOD PSAMPLE software, which is used to record and process the acquired blood data. The system can be used to measure arterial input function with an arteriovenous shunt in mice and rats, and it is installed in BioCity Turku in the small animal imaging facilities.

See also:


Alf MF, Wyss MT, Buck A, Weber B, Schibli R, Krämer SD. Quantification of brain glucose metabolism by 18F-FDG PET with real-time arterial and image-derived input function in mice. J Nucl Med. 2013; 53(1): 132-138. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.112.107474.

Boellaard R, van Lingen A, van Balen SCM, Hoving BG, Lammertsma AA. Characteristics of a new fully programmable blood sampling device for monitoring blood radioactivity during PET. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001; 28(1): 81-89. doi: 10.1007/s002590000405.

Breuer J, Grazioso R, Zhang N, Schmand M, Wienhard K. Evaluation of an MR-compatible blood sampler for PET. Phys Med Biol. 2010; 55(19): 5883-5893. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/55/19/017.

Eriksson L, Ingvar M, Rosenqvist G, Stone-Elander S, Ekdahl T, Kappel P. Characteristics of a new automated blood sampling system for positron emission tomography. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 1995; 42(4): 1007-1011. doi: 10.1109/23.467757.

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Nelson AD, Muzic RF, Miraldi F, Muswick GJ, Leisure GP, Voelker W. Continuous arterial positron monitor for quantitation in PET imaging. Am J Physiol Imaging 1990; 5(2): 84-88. PMID: 2252609.

Senda M, Nishizawa S, Yonekura Y, Mukai T, Saji H, Konishi J, Torizuka K. Measurement of arterial time-activity curve by monitoring continuously drawn arterial blood with an external detector: errors and corrections. Ann Nucl Med. 1988; 2(1): 7-12. PMID: 3275106.

Wollenweber SD, Hichwa RD, Ponto LLB. Design and implementation of a simple on-line time-activity curve detector for [O-15] water PET studies. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium 1996. doi: 10.1109/NSSMIC.1996.587998.

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Updated at: 2019-12-03
Created at: 2009-03-16
Written by: Vesa Oikonen