Quantification of MAO B activity with [11C]L-deprenyl-D2
[11C]L-deprenyl-D2 (DEP-D) is used to measure the activity of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in the brain. Literature review on quantitative analysis of [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 PET brain studies is available in TPCMOD0033.
Analysis method in TPC
Preprocessing of the plasma input
Make sure that you have all the necessary data files:
- On-line blood sampler data file
- Dynamic PET image file from this study
This file is used to correct for possible start time mismatch between PET scanner and blood sampling. If you are sure that both were started simultaneously, then you do not need the dynamic image file yet.
- Count-rate curve
- Plasma curve from manual sampling
- Blood curve from manual sampling
- Plasma parent fractions
Calculate the DEP-D plasma and total blood TACs, corrected for time delay, using either the GUI DEP-D_input (available only in TPC network with a Windows XP computer), or CLI script from Windows command line with command:
If you are sure that PET scan and blood sampling were started simultaneously, you do not need to
enter the dynamic image file name; write
None in the file name field instead.
Fit irreversible two-tissue compartmental model to the regional data using PMOD or
Because of the relatively large variation in regional estimates for fitted
vascular blood volume fraction (VB),
we suggest that its value should be constrained in the fit, for example to 2.7%, that was
the population average (n=15) in TPC. With
fitk3 this can be done with option
The most reliable model parameter for describing the activity of MAO B is λ×k3, where λ = K1/k2 (independent from perfusion), and k3 is proportional to the association constant kon (Fowler et al., 1995; Arakawa et al., 2017).
MAO B inhibition percentage
If two PET studies have been performed for each subject, one before (baseline) and one after (medication) dosage of a drug that occupies MAO B, the MAO B inhibition (EI) percentage can be computed as described here.
Fowler and Logan have suggested a method to compute λ×k3 images.
To reduce the number of parameters to be estimated, a clustering algorithm which groups voxels with similar kinetics could be applied prior to the voxel analysis. In estimating the model parameters for each voxel, λ could then be fixed at the cluster value (Shumay et al., 2012).
Arakawa R, Stenkrona P, Takano A, Nag S, Maior RS, Halldin C. Test-retest reproducibility of [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 binding to MAO-B in the human brain. EJNMMI Res. 2017; 7:54. doi: 10.1186/s13550-017-0301-4.
Analysis of [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 (DEP-D) brain PET studies. TPCMOD0033.
Analysis of [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 (DEP-D) brain PET studies: processing of blood data. TPCMOD0033 Appendix A (in TPC intranet).
Analysis of [11C]L-deprenyl-D2 (DEP-D) brain PET studies: compartment model analysis of regional data. TPCMOD0033 Appendix C (in TPC intranet).
Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Logan J, Xie S, Volkow ND, MacGregor RR, Schlyer DJ, Pappas N, Alexoff DL, Patlak C, Wolf AP. Selective reduction of radiotracer trapping by deuterium substitution: comparison of carbon-11-L-deprenyl and carbon-11-deprenyl-D2 for MAO B mapping. J Nucl Med. 1995; 36(7): 1255-1262.
Hirvonen J, Kailajärvi M, Haltia T, Koskimies S, Någren K, Virsu P, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Ruokoniemi P, Virtanen K, Scheinin M, Rinne JO. Assessment of MAO-B occupancy in the brain with PET and [11C]-L-deprenyl-D2: a dose-finding study with a novel MAO-B inhibitor, EVT 301. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009; 85(5): 506-512. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2008.241.
Shumay E, Logan J, Volkow ND, Fowler JS. Evidence that the methylation state of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene predicts brain activity of MAOA enzyme in healthy men. Epigenetics 2012; 7(10): 1151-1160.
Sturm S, Forsberg A, Nave S, Stenkrona P, Seneca N, Varrone A, Comley RA, Fazio P, Jamois C, Nakao R, Ejduk Z, Al-Tawil N, Akenine U, Halldin C, Andreasen N, Ricci B. Positron emission tomography measurement of brain MAO-B inhibition in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and elderly controls after oral administration of sembragiline. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2017; 44: 382-391.
Updated at: 2017-06-26
Created at: 2014-05-19
Written by: Vesa Oikonen